A putative homologue of CDC20/CDH1 in the malaria parasite is essential for male gamete development.

David S Guttery, David J P Ferguson, Benoit Poulin, Zhengyao Xu, Ursula Straschil, Onny Klop, Lev Solyakov, Sara M Sandrini, Declan Brady, Conrad A Nieduszynski, Chris J Janse, Anthony A Holder, Andrew B Tobin, Rita Tewari

PLoS Pathog. (2012), 8(2):e1002554PDF | PubMed | PubMed Central | PLoS Pathog.

Cell-cycle progression is governed by a series of essential regulatory proteins. Two major regulators are cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20) and its homologue, CDC20 homologue 1 (CDH1), which activate the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in mitosis, and facilitate degradation of mitotic APC/C substrates. The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is a haploid organism which, during its life-cycle undergoes two stages of mitosis; one associated with asexual multiplication and the other with male gametogenesis. Cell-cycle regulation and DNA replication in Plasmodium was recently shown to be dependent on the activity of a number of protein kinases. However, the function of cell division cycle proteins that are also involved in this process, such as CDC20 and CDH1 is totally unknown. Here we examine the role of a putative CDC20/CDH1 in the rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei (Pb) using reverse genetics. Phylogenetic analysis identified a single putative Plasmodium CDC20/CDH1 homologue (termed CDC20 for simplicity) suggesting that Plasmodium APC/C has only one regulator. In our genetic approach to delete the endogenous cdc20 gene of P. berghei, we demonstrate that PbCDC20 plays a vital role in male gametogenesis, but is not essential for mitosis in the asexual blood stage. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis in parasite lines with deletions of two kinase genes involved in male sexual development (map2 and cdpk4), showed a significant increase in cdc20 transcription in activated gametocytes. DNA replication and ultra structural analyses of cdc20 and map2 mutants showed similar blockage of nuclear division at the nuclear spindle/kinetochore stage. CDC20 was phosphorylated in asexual and sexual stages, but the level of modification was higher in activated gametocytes and ookinetes. Changes in global protein phosphorylation patterns in the Δcdc20 mutant parasites were largely different from those observed in the Δmap2 mutant. This suggests that CDC20 and MAP2 are both likely to play independent but vital roles in male gametogenesis.

Our publications

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DNA replication timing influences gene expression level.
Müller & Nieduszynski (2017)
J. Cell Biol., 216(7):1907-1914

Deep functional analysis of synII, a 770-kilobase synthetic yeast chromosome.
Shen et al. (2017)
Science, 355(6329):


Discovery of an Unconventional Centromere in Budding Yeast Redefines Evolution of Point Centromeres.
Kobayashi et al. (2015)
Curr. Biol., 25(15):2026-33

A global profile of replicative polymerase usage.
Daigaku et al. (2015)
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 22(3):192-8


The dynamics of genome replication using deep sequencing.
Müller et al. (2014)
Nucleic Acids Res., 42(1):e3


High-resolution replication profiles define the stochastic nature of genome replication initiation and termination.
Hawkins et al. (2013)
Cell Rep, 5(4):1132-41

Accelerated growth in the absence of DNA replication origins.
Hawkins et al. (2013)
Nature, 503(7477):544-547

Stochastic association of neighboring replicons creates replication factories in budding yeast.
Saner et al. (2013)
J. Cell Biol., 202(7):1001-1012

A Link between ORC-origin binding mechanisms and origin activation time revealed in budding yeast.
Hoggard et al. (2013)
PLoS Genet., 9(9):e1003798

Replisome stall events have shaped the distribution of replication origins in the genomes of yeasts.
Newman et al. (2013)
Nucleic Acids Res., 41(21):9705-18

Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide.
Rudolph et al. (2013)
Nature, 500(7464):608-11

Kinetochores coordinate pericentromeric cohesion and early DNA replication by cdc7-dbf4 kinase recruitment.
Natsume et al. (2013)
Mol. Cell, 50(5):661-74

High quality de novo sequencing and assembly of the Saccharomyces arboricolus genome.
Liti et al. (2013)
BMC Genomics, 14():69


Mathematical modeling of genome replication.
Retkute et al. (2012)
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys, 86(3 Pt 1):031916

Conservation of replication timing reveals global and local regulation of replication origin activity.
Müller & Nieduszynski (2012)
Genome Res., 22(10):1953-62

A putative homologue of CDC20/CDH1 in the malaria parasite is essential for male gamete development.
Guttery et al. (2012)
PLoS Pathog., 8(2):e1002554


OriDB, the DNA replication origin database updated and extended.
Siow et al. (2011)
Nucleic Acids Res., 40(Database issue):D682-6

Dynamics of DNA replication in yeast.
Retkute et al. (2011)
Phys. Rev. Lett., 107(6):068103

Comparative functional genomics of the fission yeasts.
Rhind et al. (2011)
Science, 332(6032):930-6

From sequence to function: Insights from natural variation in budding yeasts.
Nieduszynski & Liti (2011)
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1810(10):959-66


Mathematical modelling of whole chromosome replication.
de Moura et al. (2010)
Nucleic Acids Res., 38(17):5623-33


The origin recognition complex interacts with a subset of metabolic genes tightly linked to origins of replication.
Shor et al. (2009)
PLoS Genet., 5(12):e1000755

Detection of replication origins using comparative genomics and recombinational ARS assay.
Nieduszynski & Donaldson (2009)
Methods Mol. Biol., 521():295-313


Analysis of chromosome III replicators reveals an unusual structure for the ARS318 silencer origin and a conserved WTW sequence within the origin recognition complex binding site.
Chang et al. (2008)
Mol. Cell. Biol., 28(16):5071-81


OriDB: a DNA replication origin database.
Nieduszynski et al. (2006)
Nucleic Acids Res., 35(Database issue):D40-6

Genome-wide identification of replication origins in yeast by comparative genomics.
Nieduszynski et al. (2006)
Genes Dev., 20(14):1874-9


The requirement of yeast replication origins for pre-replication complex proteins is modulated by transcription.
Nieduszynski et al. (2005)
Nucleic Acids Res., 33(8):2410-20


The cyclin A1-CDK2 complex regulates DNA double-strand break repair.
Müller-Tidow et al. (2004)
Mol. Cell. Biol., 24(20):8917-28

Cyclin A1 protein shows haplo-insufficiency for normal fertility in male mice.
van der Meer et al. (2004)
Reproduction, 127(4):503-11


Whole-genome analysis of animal A- and B-type cyclins.
Nieduszynski et al. (2002)
Genome Biol., 3(12):RESEARCH0070

Ku complex controls the replication time of DNA in telomere regions.
Cosgrove et al. (2002)
Genes Dev., 16(19):2485-90

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